Monday, October 10, 2016

Crossing Borders: Temporal genetic differentiation over oceanographic fronts

by Ferran Palero

A new paper from the CHALLENGEN team entitled “Temporal and spatial genetic differentiation in the crab Liocarcinus depurator across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition” has been recently published in the JCR journal Scientific Reports.

Median joining haplotype network. Each circle represents a haplotype and its size is proportional to its frequency. Location acronyms are DELT (Delta de l’Ebre), VALE (València), ALAC (Alacant), WALB (Málaga) CADI (Cádiz).

Proportion of individuals assigned to the MED haplogroup in each location and sampled year from 1000 pseudoreplicates.
Spatial genetic studies often require sampling broadly separated areas, difficult to access simultaneously. Although comparing localities surveyed at different time periods might result in spurious genetic differentiation, there is a general believe on the stability of genetic structure through time, particularly if sampled localities are isolated or very distant. However, should we really expect stable genetic patterns in marine species? To test this important question, Marta Pascual and collaborators have assessed the time-variation of phylogeography patterns of the portunid crab Liocarcinus depurator across the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition. A partial fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene was sequenced in 366 individuals collected during three time periods from localities at both sides of each of the three main oceanographic discontinuities in the area: Gibraltar Strait, Almeria-Oran Front and Ibiza Channel. Although localities showed genetic fluctuations through time, a significant gradient was detected along the coast for all sampling periods. Significant inter-annual differences identified within the Alicante area, north of the Almeria-Oran Front, were associated with shifts in the relative contribution of Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses. The authors conclude that the persistence of a clinal pattern in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area despite local fluctuations suggests a complex balance of dispersal and selection.

Despite the Alicante population from 2007 had a larger proportion of Atlantic haplotypes, an overall genetic cline remains stable across the 3-year sampling period.